Red sea (Arab. البحر الأحمر Bahr el-Ahmar, Hebr. ים סוף Yam Suf, FR. mer Rouge) — inland sea of the Indian ocean situated between the Arabian Peninsula and Africa in a tectonic depression. In the North sea adjacent to the Suez isthmus that divides two bays: the Suez and Aqaba, via the Suez canal connects with the Mediterranean sea and the Arabian sea to the South connects the Bab-El-Mandeb Strait (“Gate of tears”) from the Gulf of Aden. Red sea — the saltiest of sea included in the World ocean.
The red sea washes the shores of Asia and Africa: Egypt, Sudan, Djibouti, Eritrea, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Israel and Jordan.
The area of the red sea is 450 thousand km2. almost 2/3 of the sea lie in the tropical zone.
Water volume — 251 thousand km3.
According to various estimates, the length of C. J. miles from 1932 to 2350 km, width from 305 to 360. The coast is indented slightly, their outlines mostly predefined fault tectonics and almost the entire Eastern and Western shores parallel to each other.
In the bottom topography are highlighted in the coastal shallow (to depths of 200 m), the widest in the southern part of the sea, with numerous coral Islands and indigenous, so-called main trough, a narrow basin, which occupies most of the bottom of the sea to an average depth of 1000 m, and sevastra — a narrow and deep trench, as if embedded in the main trough, with a maximum depth, according to different sources, from 2604 to 3040 meters. And an average depth of 437 m.
Of Islands in the North sea is small (e.g. Tiran island) and South of 17° n they form several groups with numerous Islands: Dahlak in the South-Western part of the sea are the greatest, and the archipelagos Farasan, Suakin, the Hanish Islands smaller. There are isolated Islands of Kamaran.
In the North sea has two Gulf of Suez and Aqaba (Eilat), which is connected with the Red sea through the Strait of Tiran. By the way, on the Aqaba Gulf of the fault, so the depth of this Bay reaches big values (up to 1800 meters).
The red sea is that it does not no river flows, and rivers bring silt and sand, significantly reducing the transparency of sea water. Therefore, the water in the Red sea crystal clear.
The red sea is the saltiest sea of the World ocean. In 1 liter of water contains about 41 grams of salt (in the open ocean 34 g, 18 in the Black sea, in the Baltic just 5 grams of salt per liter of water). For the year falls over the sea not more than 100 mm of rainfall (and even then, not everywhere, and only in winter months), evaporates at the same time 20 times — 2000 mm. (This means that every day from the surface of the sea evaporates more than a half centimeter of water). In the absence of water inflow from the land this water deficit is compensated only by the flow of water from the Gulf of Aden. In Bab-El-Mandeb Strait at the same time there is a natural flow, incoming into the Red sea and coming out of it. For the year in the sea water is brought almost 1,000 cubic km more than is taken from it. For a complete exchange of water in the Red sea to just 15 years.
In 1886, during the expedition in the Russian Corvette “Vityaz” in the Red sea at a depth of 600 meters were found with abnormally high water temperature. The Swedish vessel Albatross in 1948 were also detected in this water with abnormally high salinity. Finally the presence of hot metalliferous brines at greater depths in the Red sea was established in 1964 by the American expedition on the ship “discovery”, when the water temperature at depth of 2.2 km was 44 degrees, and salinity — 261 grams per liter. By 1980 it had opened 15 locations at the bottom of the red sea with such waters, which, along with the adjacent bottom sediments highly enriched with metals.
The quality and diversity of corals, marine flora and fauna of the Red sea has no equal in the Northern hemisphere. The tourist boom that swept in recent years, the Egyptian red sea coast, largely linked to a unique and incredibly rich underwater world of this tropical sea, the popularization of scuba diving.
Stretching along the Egyptian coast coral reefs are a kind of vital center, which attracts many fish. The diversity of forms of corals, which may be round, flat, branched, and have other fantastic shapes and colors — from pale yellow and pink to brown and blue. But the color retain only living coral, after death they lose the soft covering fabric and there is only white calcium skeleton.
In the Red sea are widely distributed bottlenose dolphins, various species of striped Dolphin and killer whales. You might encounter under water with a green turtle. Amazing elongated echinoderms — sea cucumbers — live on the seabed, shark, they’re home to the coast of Sudan. Some ichthyologists and divers claim that the disposition of sharks are quite peaceful, and they are extremely timid. Seeing people, they tend to quickly retreat. Moray eels are adapted to life on the reefs, can reach 3 meters in length and have a pretty awesome view. But, basically, if they are not teasing, they are not dangerous to humans. Here you can find and fish-Napoleon earned its name because of a characteristic protrusion on the head that resembles a hat the French Emperor. These fish are especially numerous at the southern tip of the Sinai Peninsula. Remarkable bright colors angelfish and butterfly fish, clown fish and the Sultan.