Cryptocorynes or white spot disease in marine aquarium
Pathogen: cryptocaryon parasite, Cryptocaryon irritans . parasitic ciliate .
Is considered to be a surface parasite. Ciliate threat at a temperature of 15-30 degrees. It is a distant relative of the ciliate Ichthyophthirius .
Different strains of the genus Cryptocaryon . taken from different parts of the world, have a similar life cycle and requirements for water.
The parasite penetrates the skin and gills of fish. In the white spot (cyst) on the body or gills of the fish leads to the formation of embryonic bodies of the parasite. Then the cyst breaks and the parasite (the name of tomont) fall into the water, where they live 12-18 hours. They then form a protective cocoon attached to the glass or the interior. In the cocoon tomonte share: one tomont can produce up to 200 eggs, called Tamiami. Maturation of tomatov strongly depends on temperature and takes up to 1 month. After that, the cocoon bursts, releasing parasites into the aquarium. The parasites grow cilia: they may now move. This parasite nazyvaetsja Terent. Terent can survive without a host for 12-18 hours.
Full cycle development of cryptocaryon . 9 — 40 days, depending on water temperature and immunity of fish . The warmer the water the faster evolving parasites.
The parasite is present in almost any sea water, and just bought a marine fish infected with a probability of 90%.
In the marine aquarium cryptocaryon usually multiplies rapidly, and its concentration there, because of the crowding of the fish and small space, can become very high. Fish falls ill with the weakening of immunity and stress-factors.
Symptoms: disease is usually easily diagnosed (but it is better to conduct a microscopic examination), due to a distinct external features: distinctive white spots, nodules on the body of the fish.
In the early stages affects the gills: white spots covering them, causing irritation and causing breathing difficulties. The spots reach 2 mm. in diameter, the spots may be covered by other parts of the fish’s body and fins, the fish’s eyes become cloudy, can be observed: increase mucus, color change fish, weight loss. Fish can get sick from secondary infections and infestations.
Fish can behave poorly: rubs against underwater objects, lies at the surface or at the bottom, it quickens the breathing.
Epidemic can begin, with bright flashes within a few days. In the absence of timely treatment of a whole fish population can be lost, however, in some cases fish can recover and acquire immunity to this disease, which persists for more than 6 months, but this fish can also be a source of infection in the biotope.
The diagnosis is based on microscopic analysis of the pieces of skin, fins and gills (diagnosis on the basis of external symptoms is not always accurate). Ciliates are defined as spherical or pear-shaped ciliated cells moving in tissues. The ciliate can be detected, submerged beneath the outer layer of the fish skin.
Treatment: first of all, you must find and fix the cause of the fall of the immune system of fish that caused the outbreak of this disease.
The most effective treatment for the disease . copper and preparations on its basis (for example, copper sulphate CuSO4•5H20). But copper is extremely toxic to invertebrates . and overdose — and to fish. The dosage of copper ion should not exceed 0.115 and 0.2 ppm (parts per million).
The course of treatment takes 14 to 25 days. Then the therapy is carried out within a week after the disappearance of major symptoms. The parasites are only vulnerable at some point of their life cycle, so the treatment is quite long.
Because of the extreme toxicity of copper to invertebrates, diseased fish it is better to treat in a quarantine tank . But apparently healthy appearance of the fish, held with the infected, may cause new outbreaks of the disease, it is advisable to treat all fish from the affected biotope within a month — this ensures elimination of parasites.
Help in the treatment of UV sterilizers and diatom filters . Sterilizers kill floating Tomilov, and diatom filters, catch Tomilov.
Some fish are “always sick”: on their body all the time there are white patches or other symptoms of the disease. This is due to poor living conditions . The aquarist should improve fish nutrition, water quality. Cryptocorynes is a disease, and it is often accompanied by other diseases (for example, brooklynmilleon ).
This is one of the most common diseases of marine fish, no wonder it is compared with freshwater ICH .
Different species of fish observed different susceptibility to the disease.
Symptoms are similar to ICH, oodinium (white dots when cryptocorynes much larger than oodinium ).
The aquarium without fish is subjected to disinfection : raising the temperature to 40 °C for 1 hour, maintaining the containers in a solution of 100 mg/l benzalkonium chloride, 24 hour soak in a solution of 60 mg/l of chloride or drying of the biotope. Free Terenty die quickly after one of two treatments: exposure to a solution with 2.4 mg/l chlorine for 1 hour, or in solution with 100 mg/l benzalkonium chloride for 1 hour or raising the temperature to 40 °C for 1 hour.